The journalist revealed her diagnosis via Twitter, telling followers she would be undergoing a mastectomy in the coming weeks.
She wrote: "Hi. Have been diagnosed with breast cancer & am having a mastectomy in a few wks. Family, friends, work & NHS staff are being brilliant.
"Will be doing the programme as much as possible during treatment in the months ahead."
Victoria, 46, presents The Victoria Derbyshire Show on BBC Two and BBC News Channel. She previously presented BBC Radio 5 Live and has guest hosted Newsnight.
A rep for BBC said: "We wish Victoria a full and speedy recovery and look forward to having her back full-time on the programme as soon as possible."